The process of Becoming

Published on by Catherine Toulsaly

Imagination is a Monastery and I am its Monk

John Keats

 

I have found inspiration in myths and folktales. According to a legend, so “many moons ago” Native American tribes lived underground in total darkness. One of their animals, a ground mole, one day crawled through a hole and saw trees and rivers and the sky! The mole crawled back through the hole as fast as it could and told everyone of the wonders it had seen. Sadly, the light had made it blind. And so everyone climbed through that hole into the wonders of the Earth. 

 

Since I wrote about Ultima Thule over a year ago, the Kuiper Belt object was renamed Arrokoth, a term meaning “sky” in the Powhatan/Algonquian language as if we became the explorers who have sailed off across space and reached the last frontier of the Solar system to gaze at the skyline. The snowman-shaped 21-miles long planetesimal is thought to have formed in place and remained largely undisturbed. Once believed to be composed of two distinct spherical objects, it was shown during the New Horizons flyby last year that it is, in fact, a contact binary made of two lobes formed separately in a collapsing pebble cloud of the protosolar nebula at the time of planetesimal formation until the accretion of the two parts took place over 4 billion years ago

 

Arrokoth reminds me of another Native American tale, this one of Elegant who collected all the rags that he could find, and, kneading snow over a framework of animals' bones, molded it into the shape of a man. The formation process of the geometric, co-joined object appears to be common in the Kuiper belt, based on the abundance of binaries detected there in telescopic surveys. I can’t help but wonder whether Arrokoth is on its way to becoming a passing comet.

 

 

A team of researchers has studied three very different objects of the Solar system: Arrokoth, Saturn's captured moon, Phoebe and Pluton in order to uncover any footprints of their interstellar inheritance and shed light on the composition of the early solar nebula. Another planetary nebula, Helix Nebula (NGC 7293), shows the presence, inside its molecular envelope, of microstructures, those dense clumps of gas and dust known as cometary knots which might have happened after photoionization of the nebula.

Helix Nebula (NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ.of Ariz.)

Helix Nebula (NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ.of Ariz.)

 

What I see in nebulae is a sense of becoming. In the Ode on the Grecian Urn, the Urn whispered in the poet’s ear that beauty is truth, truth is beauty. Nebulae with gargantuan clouds colliding and burrowing into each other are celestial beauties, striking forms under a veil, entangled gas filaments, ghosts with an ethereal soul. If a collision takes place head-on between two clouds of different sizes, a cavity forms in the larger one through this process, and the larger cloud appears as a ring-like structure on the plane of the sky.

There are many different types of nebulae. We are told that four billion years ago, our place in space resembled the Orion nebula which,  together with its associated Orion Nebula Cluster located within the Orion A molecular cloud, is the closest region of star formation that involves massive stars. The brightest part of the nebula, the Huygens Region, in the northeast corner of the Extended Orion Nebula, comprises the Orion Nebula Cluster and is named after the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens who, in 1659, made a drawing for the first time of the Orion Nebula in his work Systema Saturnium. The densest region in the core of the Orion Nebula Cluster corresponds to the Trapezium cluster, where massive young stars excite and illuminate the nebula

 

Researchers are hoping to figure out at what evolutionary stage nursery stars are. Some are still accreting matter as if they were hiding in a cocoon, larvae in a beehive. For others, the presence of a transitioning disk gives an early clue on the development of future planets. A paper published last month presented an extensive study on protoplanetary Disks in the Orion Nebula Cluster. Another studied the accretion activity in young stellar objects in the Cluster and detected the presence of young transition disks with ages between 1 and 3.5 million years. And yet another paper published in January highlighted the structure of the Orion Nebula and its Interaction with Orion-S.


Interstellar dust plays an essential role within the interstellar medium through a myriad of microphysical processes. In the Horsehead nebula, the dominant process is the exposure of dust grains from the dense molecular cloud to the UV light of the multi-star system Sigma Ori. With dust evolution models, researchers are given the means to study how dust grains fragmentate, coagulate and transform under the thermal processes and UV light of stars depending on the wide range of interstellar medium physical conditions from the formation of icy mantles to the transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation when heated by photons. 

Carina Nebula (NASA/ESA/STScI)

Carina Nebula (NASA/ESA/STScI)

The Carina Nebula Complex is one of the most active massive-star-forming regions in the Milky Way with approximately 140 massive OB-stars and more than 1400 young stellar objects. In a paper published in March,  it was proposed a scenario wherein the formation of massive stars in the clusters was triggered by a collision between two clouds about one million years ago. Zeta Opiuchi was the subject of another 2020 study aimed at learning more about the nature of dust and magnetic fields in stellar bowshock nebulae, which form at the interface between the interstellar medium and the stellar wind from massive runaway host stars. Another recent paper identified new young stellar objects in the Lagoon Nebula while the Bubble Nebula was reported to be composed of a series of nested shells, some showing blister-like structures.

Lagoon Nebula (NASA, ESA, STScI)

Lagoon Nebula (NASA, ESA, STScI)

The Blue Ring Nebula is a different kind of nebula, the only ultraviolet-emitting nebula discovered to date. A newly released paper explained this relic of an ancient star-companion collision while another reported about the Gum Nebula, home to at least 32 cometary globules, the so-called comet-like clouds. Yet, another kind of nebula is the Pulsar wind nebula with a toroidal magnetic field structure. It is generally believed to be a site generating high energy galactic cosmic rays, like the Crab Nebula.

 

Chandra-crab

The Universe is in a state of becoming. Could an observer, convinced that the “sense” of the Universe must lie beyond, crawl outside and come back with the tale of the zygote constrained within the walls of a transparent membrane? If space-time is the record of physical reality, it is only one aspect of reality in the infinite game of space, time and gravity, in which recurrence of similar events alternate with thresholds of new unknown. There are “no spatial or numerical boundaries to an infinite game”, wrote James P. Carse, “No world is marked with the barriers of infinite play”. 

 

 

Anak Krakatau erupted two days ago like it has been periodically since it emerged above sea level in 1927 near the site of the great eruption of Krakatau in 1883. History, wrote Sydney J. Harris. "repeats itself, but in such cunning disguise that we never detect the resemblance until the damage is done". Another oak tree has died as I seek comfort in the sky. At least the half-feral cat ran away from under our house where Carolina wrens have taken refuge again.

Anak Krakatau (James D. P. Moore/Earth Observatory of Singapore)

Anak Krakatau (James D. P. Moore/Earth Observatory of Singapore)

 

In the Earth’s outer layer, I see carved human-like figures running toward the source of time and dragon-shaped forms emerging from silvery stagnant waters. But the Moon caught me in my sleep. Her brightness woke me up from my slumber. The next morning, I wonder where she has gone, buried in the clouds as she waits for the strong winds of Spring.

Rio Geba in Guinea-Bissau ( pictured from the International Space Station)

Rio Geba in Guinea-Bissau ( pictured from the International Space Station)

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In search of Time

Published on by Catherine Toulsaly

Thirty spokes share one hub to make a wheel. 三十辐共一毂,
Through its non-being, 当其无,
There is the use of the carriage 有车之用

Ellen Marie Chen

 

We carry in our bones a foundational understanding of time, space and gravity. I picture them as three lines emerging from a single point of origin to create the geometric shapes of the Universe. The thirteen characters above from Daode Jing 道德经 become entangled in the translator’s mind. Is time a wheel with repetitive patterns of emergence or an invisible carriage taking mankind through infinity and beyond? Time is a tool meant to evaluate the variation of physical quantities. It underlies internal processes which result in macroscopic physical evidence.  The wheel of history is said to have a tendency to repeat itself. Its cyclical nature allows it to circle around. The human mind driven to find meaning has attempted in the past to transcribe those temporal loops into theories. Time is punctuated by events,  “organic” units of change, which stir physical disturbances in the fabric of the Universe. 

Eastern Red Columbine

Eastern Red Columbine

 

Most, however, don’t think of a four-wheeled carriage on an endless road. They think of time like an arrow. Does the arrow have two ends? Contemporary theories governing the dynamics of the Universe are usually assumed to not distinguish one time direction over any other. We see that chemical reactions go forward and backward and wonder why time does not behave the same. A “magical realist” would take time asymmetries as the unreliable appearance of the Universe and the irreversibility of time as a perspectival phenomenon:

Time asymmetry, and therefore “time flow", might be a feature of a subsystem to which we belong, features needed for information gathering creatures like us to exist, not a feature of the universe at large

Carlo Rovelli

 

We grieve its loss as time goes by and wonder where it has gone. How could something unreal be gone anyway? How can we see something that is not there? Ideally, those questions are best to be answered by an outside observer.  The “sense of the world", wrote Ludwig Wittgenstein, “must lie outside the world. In the world, everything is as it is and happens as it does happen. In it, there is no value - and if there were, it would be of no value” ( Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, p.87). If the camera held by Consciousness were to zoom out and survey the Universe from a higher vantage point, would she still see the footprints of time?

Ferns

Ferns

 

Naturally since we have learned to spatialize time, it is impossible to separate time from space and consequently write a story of time that is not the story of the Universe which science describes as a continuous non-equilibrium state of reality in which an element of randomness fuels atomic and molecular motion. From a theoretical perspective, writes Erik Verlinde in a paper published in 2017,  our ‘macroscopic’ notions of spacetime and gravity are emergent from an underlying microscopic description in which they have no a priori meaning. Time may be looked at on two levels. Microscopically, said a paper published this year, time may be discretely distributed in space as the direct carrier of quantized energy. Furthermore it is defined by the photon inflow (and outflow) into the atom and the related irreversibility due to the interaction photon-atomic electron. Macroscopically, time manifests itself in the interaction between matter and thermal radiation: 

...the macroscopic irreversibility is no more than a consequence of the microscopic irreversibility due to the interaction photon-electron, or from a macroscopic point of view between the electromagnetic waves and the matter.

Umberto Lucia & Giulia Grisolia

 

 

If the arrow had two ends, the Universe would be kept within close bounds. If space is a closed system, write the authors of a paper last year titled Death: An Unpredictable Variable of Time - Is the Impossible Possible?, “the future for space does not exist, while for the brain, it could be the path of dialogue towards a dimension out of time and space, to use a term understandably defined in common language, in eternity, that is, in a concept that does not contain the sense of finiteness.” Some doubt indeed, that time did not precede the Big Bang and that it won’t persist beyond a Big Crunch, Rip or freeze. If it is the latter, nothing in the Universe will move around, producing a freezing for all the eternity. Multiple scenarios of cyclic Universe models have been proposed over time. A 2019 paper proposed a  new kind of cyclic universe without a Big Bang.  Another one last year presented a scenario in which the Universe like a beating heart would start from nothing and then expands, contracts and expands again. I still wonder in my mind whether time would go on without disruption or reverse course during contraction. 

Serviceberry

Serviceberry

 

The irreversibility of time refers to the order of events. Umberto Lucia and Giulia Grisolia argue that any completely reversible system should be able to disappear in a space position and to appear in any other space position without spending time. To explain the seemingly irreversible order of time, Yakir Aharonov, Eliahu Cohen and Tomer Landsberger developed an interpretation of the two-state vector formalism and suggested, as I mentioned in an earlier post, the paradox that the past and the future play an equal role in the determination of the quantum state at the intermediate points between the initial and final states.  Within the course of the Universe would run a trail of events, endless middle ways of elements of reality. Another scenario putting into question the irreversibility of time involves a time-reversed antimatter Universe hiding in plain sight. It was proposed that there be two universes both expanding from the point of view of their internal inhabitants, who identify matter with the particles that move in their spacetimes and antimatter with the particles that move in the time reversely symmetric universe

Logic is not a theory but a reflection of the World

Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Ludwig Wittgenstein, p.82

 

In a multidimensional continuum, I see time, space and gravity drawing, on their path, flows and loops in the fabric of the Universe. I hear the songs of hidden white-throated sparrows still echoing in surrounding trees. One morning I took a walk and gazed at the sky where moon-like clouds were chasing each other in a long line of white clusters. I can’t tell from here whether space is infinite but since my mind cannot realistically consider time and space as separate entities, if space is infinite, time surely is too. The infinite, said Louis-Auguste Blanqui, can only present itself in the form of the indefinite. Is that why time seems so elusive? 

Virginia bluebells

Virginia bluebells

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Theory of everything

Published on by Catherine Toulsaly

Boulder, Goldsworthy, Glenstone

Boulder, Goldsworthy, Glenstone

 

The stream is burbling at the bottom of the hill outside the three little pigs houses: one with a globe inside, the other an empty square room and the third with a hole in the wall. The three little pigs listen to the water sounds but their perception of reality differs. When Einstein met Tagore, when Bohm met Krishnamurti, did they agree on what universe we live in? 

 

 

I read Lee Smolin’s book like a journey into reality, a historical search for answers, an invitation to take a pause and dwell on a theory of everything. With remarkable clarity of expression, he urges us to demonstrate the utmost lucidity when tackling the idea of a theory of everything, Einstein’s unfinished revolution. Are we the ones who will figure it out or is the dream beyond today’s reach? “There is,” Smolin writes, “a subtle but key difference between the idea that quantum mechanics is the theory of everything, and the hope of extending quantum theory to include the whole universe.” (p. 27). 

 

Holes, Goldsworthy, Glenstone

Holes, Goldsworthy, Glenstone

 

As I alluded in the introductory remarks, I think of this blog as a notepad meant to gather my own stream of consciousness. My thought process needs a lot of unwinding and rewinding in order to move forward, like the story of The Little Engine That Could. And so I took another look at earlier posts in light of Smolin’s book and recall Helmut Fink and Hajo Leshcke conclusions that the existence of a quantum state of the whole universe can only be a metaphysical idea

 

 

Claude Shannon, writes Smolin, defined information as a channel that carries “a message from a sender to a receiver”. “The Universe as a whole is not such a channel of information”  (p.189). In a highly compartmentalized Universe, cut into pieces, we are acutely aware of our tragic sense of isolation as individual beings and as a collective whole. In order for the sender and the receiver to communicate with each other, they need to share the same “language, by means of which they give meaning to a sequence of symbols” and therefore, the shared semantics need in a way to operate on the same frequency.

 

 

“In principle,” writes Smolin “system quantum mechanics applies to must be a subsystem of a larger system” (p.26) and given “the quantum state of an isolated system at one time, there is a law that will predict the precise quantum state of that system at any other time” (p.31). In his own search for a new theory, he writes that “we need to back off from our models, postpone conjectures about constituents, and begin again by talking about principles” (p.227). With that in mind, he identifies five principles and proposes three hypotheses, one being the irreversibility of time. 

 

Realists show a willingness to accept what is. Somehow I can’t. Drawn by the unexplainable and the theoretical pathways I forget to bring my feet back on the ground as I dream of hidden variables and what lies beyond. Against all odds, I am still struggling with the overarching principle of time.  I see time as having no independent reality. It is neither an absolute nor a universal constant. Since time is relative, its raison d'être disappears. Time is non-existent. Each moment in time offers its own version of reality as if space-time were cut into slices and each slice represented a universe. For us, humans, the intangible past is relegated to the archives of our selective memory and our vanished memories are signals sent in the present moment by our brain cells. Could we call into question even the principle of temporal locality?

...temporal locality is deeply woven into many of the key results on which our present understanding of the interpretation of quantum theory is founded, and unpicking it would require a radical reinterpretation of the significance of those results.

Emily Adlam

Room, Goldsworthy, Glenstone

Room, Goldsworthy, Glenstone

 

Smolin mentions Julian Barbour’s proposal that “Reality is just the vast collection of moments” (p.202). But that vast collection of moments -- the collective whole -- are loops of temporalities incorporated in some more stringent actual conditions such as the setting of our own solar system which displays neither the compactness of many Kepler planetary systems nor planets intermediate in size between Earth and Neptune. There is a gap -- whether it be temporal, physical or conceptual -- between the observable reality and the unobservables. “Science” which “sees itself as an actor in the interplay between man and nature” (p.92) attempts to fill the gap by making us realize what actually is. 


The universe consists of nothing but views of itself, each from an event in its history, and the laws act to make these views as diverse as possible.

Einstein's Unfinished Revolution, Lee Smolin, p.271

 

In his defense of realism, Smolin cites Roger Penrose. “The sudden change of the wave function is not, as some hold, due to an update in our knowledge of where the particle is; it is a genuine physical process” (p.139), an effect of gravity. But for Bohr, neither particles nor waves are attributes of nature. “They are no more than ideas in our minds, which we impose on the natural world”(p.84).  Science is not about nature. “It does not and cannot give us an objective picture of what nature is like” (p.85). In a sense, science translates reality using “tables of numbers which represent the interactions with the atom, but not the atom directly” (p.89). 

Each picture is legitimate when used in the right place, but the different pictures are contradictory and therefore we call them mutually complementary

Einstein's Unfinished Revolution, Lee Smolin, p.93

Against the proponents of an anti-realist view of the Universe, Smolin quotes another realist Carlo Rovelli for whom“reality consists of the sequence of events by means of which a system on one side of a boundary may gain information about the part of the world on the other side” (p.198) as if a narrow window could be opened from one level to the next of a structured reality. 

...once we accept that the universe may be generically nonlocal across both time and space, it becomes at least plausible that quantum theory as we know it is simply the local limit of a global theory which applies constraints across the whole of space and time.

Emily Adlam

 

Historians have a deterministic approach to History. Scientists have a deterministic view of the physical world. Theorists, for their part, have a probabilistic vision of the future. Clueless about our distant past and future, we remain all the more convinced of the interconnectedness of the universe.  Should a theory of everything be deterministic? A theory that would create a picture of an integrated and interconnected Universe may well be deterministic. But if randomness were a quintessential part of the Universe, a theory of everything would ultimately be probabilistic. 

...could it mean that every random discovery is part of a larger scheme of things meant to guide us through the maze of the unknowable?

Randomness

 

If we take a realist approach to the workings of the Universe, Smolin concludes that so far, none of the well-developed options such as the pilot wave theory, the wave function collapse, retrocausality and superdeterminism are “convincing” (p.205). The thing is that in order to invent a theory of everything, we ought to go deeper and the further we travel in time and space, the deeper we need to go as if we were extending our arms hoping to catch something that still remains beyond our reach. A theory of everything may in a sense be in constant evolution.

If the Universe were a macro-state, new comets and asteroids would be "hidden variables" coming into play, whose measurements are pieces of a puzzle. Consciousness is set to understand whether those encounters are the result of true randomness or the outcome of a deterministic pattern.

Realism

 

Self-reflection takes the form of a dialogue between an eagle and a condor on ways to close the communication gap between the different elements of reality. Have we become the people we have been waiting for and the keepers of the dream

The history of the universe, according to an energetic causal set model, consists of events which are each the causes of future events, to which they transfer some energy and momentum.

Einstein's Unfinished Revolution, Lee Smolin, p.261

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A hawk alighted upon my shoulder

Published on by Catherine Toulsaly

Red-tailed hawk (allaboutbirds.org)

Red-tailed hawk (allaboutbirds.org)

There is poetry of this immediate present, instant poetry, as well as poetry of the infinite past and infinite future.

D. H. Lawrence

 

I watched a red-tailed hawk flying off the edge of the pond one morning. Reality is on full display when I hear sparrows singing, flickers calling, when I see squirrels nesting, raccoons standing on their two feet and rabbits titling their ears. But my mind still wanders off: Can they too gaze at the night sky? A poet’s mind might go on dreaming that they could feel the reach of powerful outbursts like the one recorded in the Ophiuchus galaxy cluster 390 million light-years away and sense the temporary capture in Earth ‘s orbit of a tiny object called 2020 CD3.

 

A poet would go on dreaming of weasels intrigued by the discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider and instinctively aware that gluons are the reason why the atomic nucleus holds together. A poet would go on dreaming of ravens feeling the gravitational waves observed by LIGO from a collision of two neutron stars. A study divided exoplanets around sun-like stars into four main categories: rocky worlds, water worlds, gas giants and transitional planets. A poet would go on dreaming of dolphins leaping left and right in the oceans of the water worlds in the far reaches of the Universe.

 

It is fascinating to me that we have been chasing the edge of the Solar system. Orbital discrepancies and gravitational perturbations exerted by celestial bodies upon one another have been keys in astronomical discoveries. We are still searching for the elusive Planet X -- today known as Planet Nine -- among the tiny icy bodies in the outermost solar system.  Even more significant to me is our abilities to envision the where, why and how. Faced with the unknown, the mind conceives a myriad of possibilities. A lot has been written about this hypothetical planet in the hope to explain the orbital irregularities of Uranus and Neptune as well as the anomalous orbits of 12 Trans-Neptunian Objects selected in a 2019 study even while it is also suggested that a black hole may be the source of those anomalies. Indeed, without observational confirmation, it is hard to assess whether Planet Nine exists in reality. A paper last year reviewed the prospects for detection in the coming years.  

 

The nature of reality has become a leitmotiv in my writings. Hoping to shed light on the subject, I’ll be reading in the coming days Lee Smolin’s 2019 book titled Einstein’s Unfinished Revolution. He is a virulent critic of anti-realists.  He mentioned in his preface the three kinds of anti-realists. There are those who believe that it is only our observation that gives existence to such things as atoms and elementary particles. There are those who believe that it is only through our knowledge that we know reality and there are those who can’t make their mind on whether or not there is a reality beyond ourselves. Smolin goes on saying that realists, on the other hand, fight over whether what they see and know is the whole reality. And so there are the “naive realists” and those he calls “magical realists”. 

 

Words matter. A common expression comes to mind when I think of the debate over the nature of reality. Objectively and rhetorically, I feel that reality is a glass half full, half empty.  And I would not know really which category I fall into because my definition of reality is multifold. Given that the self rests upon our own individual feelings and emotions, we may conclude that the nature of physical reality involves the reality of the self. But at the same time, I believe there is a reality that exists no matter whether we know it or not. Unfortunately, only our gained knowledge over time tells us what it is. I wish to know the capture duration of the tiny moon 2020 CD3, where it comes from and where it goes. I wish to know whether the inexplicably loud explosion came from an active galactic nucleus or a source that is yet to be identified. And that part of unknown is a reality that I can’t yet see.

 

 

This gives me a chance to retrace my steps and rewind the thread of my thoughts. I have raised the subject more than once before. In our search for truth, we hope to match our theoretical expectations to reality. The nature of physical reality, I wrote, depends on its observation and, consequently, on the ontology of consciousness, and that it also involves time. I have yet to go through Chapters 14 and 15 of Smolin’s book and hope that it will give me more clarity on the theory of double causality which I described as a passage in which time and the reversal of time produce the observation of an “element of reality”. 

 

There are ways to better define the nature of reality. Expressions such as “actual reality”, “objective reality”, “structured reality”, “existential reality” and what I ended up calling “singular reality” are meant to pinpoint more precisely how we ought to disentangle those degrees and layers. I realize that the discussion on Consciousness and the Universe is a discussion on the nature of reality, on what ultimately remains a theoretical approach to reality. There is indeed an intangible line between truth and reality. A truth that is proved and demonstrated through empirical experimentation becomes reality in a long and unsteady process that leads to new actualities. And I would once again state what Martin J. Rees says, that “maybe some aspects of reality are intrinsically beyond us in that their comprehension would require some post-human intellect”(The smallest insect is more complex than a star or a galaxy, Grand Challenges For Science In The 21st Century, World Scientific, Sep 18, 2018)

 

In my mind, the increasingly complicated reality of the future is somehow compactified in the simpler reality of the past and that, in the future lies an attractor that pulls the essence of reality within the expanding Universe.

On the future of humanity

 

Oumuamua, I also wrote, is a perfect example of an element of reality that seemed to come right out of the realm of infinite possibilities. But while we need observational detections to provide proof of the existence of Planet Nine, phenomenology should not be taken as reality but as the unreliable appearance of the Universe. Science means constantly wiping the mirror of reality because causation drives the seen and unseen physical motion of all things in the Universe, creating a universal balance between agents and patients, subjects and objects. Smolin says that Einstein was driven by the hope of “discovering a true mirror of nature that exhibits the essence of reality in a few timeless mathematical laws” (p.9)

 

 

 The red-tailed hawk alighted on a tree stump. I wish to have its visual and hearing senses. Do we need to lift the ghosts of the past off our shoulders in order to find truth?

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Happenstance

Published on by Catherine Toulsaly

The "why" interests us only in view of the "wherefore." We wish to know whence we came only in order the better to be able to ascertain whither we are going….

Miguel de Unamuno, The Tragic Sense of Life

 

Metacognition describes the underlying mechanism of my writings.  I find myself utterly aware of my own thoughts and the boundaries placed on them, whether they are influenced by logic and reason or by peer pressure. Each one of us is faced with a fundamental choice: Either we follow our flashes of inspiration or we tone them down a notch to satisfy the general consensus. This is a dilemma that we embrace no matter where it takes us... without regret. The Universe is intricately interconnected. That we don’t know how all the pieces fit together doesn’t make it wrong to give it a try. As we live our lives, we hold on tight to the invisible thread of our thoughts until our steps will lead us to the eerie scene of a suspension bridge in the clouds to the other side. Unafraid of the threat that could pose a fierce lion wandering outside our comfort zone, a  matter of urgency resonates inside us. And so the story goes…

 

What is the purpose of the stars? Does it make sense to claim that the only way to give finality to the Universe is to give it consciousness? Carl Sagan once said that everything, including us, is made of “star stuff”. If we consider Consciousness to be at the atomic level, is the language of stars expressed by the way that particles are repelling and attracting each other the manifestation of their consciousness? Whether they be stars, stellar winds, or the intergalactic medium, much of “known matter in the Universe exists as plasmas” *. As we observe a complex set of physical processes in the molecular clouds of Orion Nebula, is it a voluntary act on its part when a massive star in its infancy blows a protective shell around it? As we are continuing to study the role of magnetic fields through the interstellar and intergalactic media, if magnetic fields are implanted at the core of stars, has our body inherited the ability to produce an external magnetic field and process magnetic signals?

Orion Nebula (NASA/JPL-Caltech/STScI)

Orion Nebula (NASA/JPL-Caltech/STScI)

 

Life occurs during the development of a complex structure as a result of its ability to mobilize the energy necessary for its inner maintenance and its capacity to reproduce or multiply in a more or less identical manner.  Is the foundation on which the inner workings of stars rest key evidence of life? In order for a star to be a biological object, it would need to fit into the framework of a universal theory of organisms. I imagine a star to be a celestial body of multiscale cascades of particles repelling and attracting each other. 

 

What brings us to equate the cycle of a star to life is the diversity that colors its evolution from birth to oblivion. Stars display a wide range of variations and differences. A supernova may be the result of the collapse of a massive star. Although it was predicted that neutron stars would form in supernova explosions, an unknown but possibly substantial fraction of them might produce black holes rather than neutron stars. PSR J1719-1438 and PSR J0636+5128 are among the black widow systems that were detected for the first time in 1988, in which a millisecond pulsar -- a highly magnetized neutron star -- sucks up its companion’s mass leading to its full annihilation and leaving the pulsar behind isolated. 

SN 2014J in the galaxy M82 ( NASA Goddard)

SN 2014J in the galaxy M82 ( NASA Goddard)

 

It can be quite unsettling to see the Universe, not in its present form but as a process, a brief moment over billions of years. Between what was, what is and what will be, our singular reality -- past, present, and future -- has taken this visible shape. As we gaze with wonder at the sight of supernovae, let us remember that the Sun was “formed on the ashes of a previous supernova”**. At an estimated rate of 2-5 per century, the energetic shock wave of a galactic supernova spreads out into the interstellar medium, dispersing heavy elements.  A 2019 study concluded that metals originated from the very first generation of stars were distributed not only within galactic haloes but within low-density regions located at large distances from galactic haloes. Collapsars -- stars which collapse into black holes --  supply more than 80 percent of the heavy elements, such as gold and platinum, assembled in a process known as rapid neutron capture nucleosynthesis. In a binary system -- which itself would be the result of two prior supernova events --  the magnetospheres of the two neutron stars would interact with each other for decades and even centuries until their merger becomes the source of elements whose solid forms we have been using as decorative or ornamental items for the past thousands of years. 

 

 standard model from Fermilab

standard model from Fermilab

 

 

 Stars stand in the background of the periodic table of elements. At the foundation of the visible matter is another table listing forces and elementary particles.  Iron 60 was found in deep-sea sediments that incorporated stellar debris from a nearby supernova explosion about two million years ago. The carbonaceous matter is the most abundant solid in the Universe from nanodiamonds in meteorites to entire celestial bodies such as the white dwarf BPM37093, which emits a greenish-blue light, and the ancient and crystallized companion of PSR J2222−0137, one of the closest pulsars to Earth. Until 1992, it was not known that pulsars may also be rotated by planets. The crystalline vestige  PSR 1719-14 b is a Jupiter mass planet identified as one of the eleven potential exoplanets with strange quark matter mainly found around millisecond pulsars.

 

Time goes by in a matter of seconds, years, decades, or even centuries, but History, on the other hand, is engraved in stone over billions of years.  If we were to look back and assess the major advancement in our understanding of the way the Universe works, the actual observation of gravitational waves following the inspiral of two neutron stars would constitute a concrete step in our theoretical approach to reality. Since it was suggested that neutron-star mergers may be the dominant contributors to r-process production in the Galaxy, an updated merger rate for double neutron star becomes all the more important for the traceability of heavy elements in the galaxy.

Merger of two neutron stars in the galaxy NGC 4993 (NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Merger of two neutron stars in the galaxy NGC 4993 (NASA/JPL-Caltech)

… it is a subtle balance of the vibration frequencies between carbon and oxygen that result in how abundant these two critical elements are. By having the right balance of oxygen and carbon, the miracle of life is possible.

James Sung, Jianping Lin, Diamond Nanotechnology: Synthesis and Applications, p.10, Pan Stanford Publishing, 2010

 

 Is consciousness the finality or life itself?

 

 

 

*George K Parks, Physics Of Space Plasmas: An Introduction, CRC Press, 2019

**James Sung, Jianping Lin, Diamond Nanotechnology: Synthesis and Applications, Pan Stanford Publishing, 2010 

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Weaving a Web of Reality

Published on by Catherine Toulsaly

 

Entering a new decade of physics, there are spacetime crystals and teleparallel theories of gravity that seem to have taken a life of their own until the next wave of theoretical concepts washes ashore.  As waves spread out, they break new ground, hoping to cross a new threshold. From nothingness to being, theoretical constructs provide a conduit for information flow. For my part, I am still trying to grapple with the metaphysical implications of words and metaphors. What does it mean that it is possible for the universe to be in a phantom dominated era today? Time is a river carrying particles on a journey from being phantom-like to dust-like across the phantom divide. 

 

The movement of galaxies is not random. It was said that all clusters are dynamically young and that the formation of structure in the Universe has been proceeding from the small scale to the larger scale (clusters and superclusters). Our Consciousness, indeed, holds a camera, slowly zooming out from Earth beyond the bounds of our physical reach. Widening the view of the camera is our way to reflect upon the past and the future. We see Earth rotating around the solar system within the boundaries of the Milky Way which is part of a local group of galaxies currently outside the so-called capture zone of the Virgo Cluster. The same way satellite galaxies undergo infall, galaxy groups are continually being accreted onto clusters through a web-like network of filamentary structures. I wonder whether our local group and the Virgo Cluster will ultimately move towards each other?  Beyond the limits of the Virgo Cluster extends the Virgo Supercluster which, itself, is part of an even larger supercluster named Laniakea. 

 

From the genesis of the first molecule to the formation of planetesimals through a dust sticking process called pebble accretion and the multistage building of moons and planets via impact, the scene is set. The story goes on with massive rings giving birth to satellites and the tale of a white dwarf in the binary system PSR J1141- 6545 which accreted matter from a pulsar progenitor. Yet, I am still wondering what looms beneath glaciers that defines their fleeting nature.  I dreamt about an incandescent line formed by warm underground waters breaking off a river of ice flowing to where I could not say. I see the Universe as an infinite series of self-organized structures bounded by critical states. 

 

Iceberg shattered (contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2020), processed by ESA, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO)

Iceberg shattered (contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2020), processed by ESA, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO)

 

Based on the understanding that amino acid precursors are formed by cosmic radiation, cosmic rays may have many biological and climatic effects.  Scientists study the molecular chemistry involved in their interaction with Earth’s atmosphere and planetary surface when they produce a cascade of secondary particles as well as their mutagenic effects on cells. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy aboard a Boeing 747SP provided us with the first astrophysical detection of helium hydride in the planetary nebula NGC 7027. The flying Observatory also revealed that dust can re-form or grow immediately after catastrophic damage, notably in the aftermath of the Supernova 1987A’s blast wave. Dust grain catalyzes reactions at its surface allowing for the formation of molecules

When a cosmic ray particle collides with a dust grain, it deposits its energy... This heating increases the mobility of radicals on the surface of the grain…

L. Reboussin, V. Wakelam, S. Guilloteau, F. Hersant

 

 

Victor Hess received the Nobel prize in physics in 1936 for his discovery of cosmic radiation. He proved that the Sun, more precisely solar flares and coronal mass ejections, could not be the only source of cosmic rays. Scientists study the process in which cosmic rays emerge and how frequently they occur. How did they reach our shores? Is it them falling upon us, or is it we who are dragged with the rest of the solar system into those fateful encounters? While our solar system orbits through the galaxy and crosses the spiral arms of the Milky Way, it experiences variations in the interstellar medium, allowing Earth to be exposed to random doses of high-energy cosmic rays.  It was even suggested that it may be due to our Galaxy’s infall toward the Virgo cluster coupled with the oscillatory movement of our solar system perpendicular to the galactic plane

 

Galactic cosmic rays are produced by diffusive shock acceleration at the shocks of supernova remnants, such as the Orion-Eridanus superbubble blown by multiple supernovae several million years ago.  As mankind has witnessed, in the past, the sight of supernovae, not least of all, in 1604, I wonder whether the impalpable cosmic rays produced during those events did, in fact, reach us and how it would be to witness such an explosion in one’s lifetime.  

The star’s significance is a difficult matter to establish and we can be sure of only one thing: that either the star signifies nothing at all for Mankind or it signifies something of such exalted importance that it is beyond the grasp and understanding of any man

Johannes Kepler, De Stella nova in pede Serpentarii

 

Although most cosmic rays are produced by the Sun or, to a lesser extent, in our galaxy,  I wonder about those coming from beyond the solar system, whose sources remain unexplained.  I imagine that the further we launch cosmic rays detectors such as NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer or the Cosmic Ray Subsystems onboard Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, the better we might be able to understand their composition and origin. Although they may produce noticeable fluxes of diffuse gamma rays and neutrinos, further study is needed, notably in regard to the possibility that they are accelerated by the electric fields of supermassive black holes.  

Stars and Cosmic Rays Observed from Mars ( Mars Exploration Rover (MER))

Stars and Cosmic Rays Observed from Mars ( Mars Exploration Rover (MER))

 

 

Some have raised the possibility that decay or annihilation of dark matter particles is at the root of their emergence. They are engaged in the hunt for a superheavy Dark matter as a potential origin for extreme energy cosmic rays. The debate today is rather about how to get to more definite answers, even indirectly.  Others investigate the nature of antiparticles in cosmic rays, in particular the production of positrons from interactions between cosmic rays and interstellar gas, and whether those positrons are to be looked at as secondary or the product of an unknown source. Franco Vazza wrote a paper entitled ‘How complex is the Cosmic Web?” in which he stated that the combination of Information Theory and modern cosmological simulations makes it possible to tackle a challenging question such as the complexity of the Universe we live in. He gave an estimate of the total statistical complexity within the observable Universe, required to describe the evolution of gas in the cosmic web. 

 

In my mind, I cling to the idea that in the intragalactic medium plasma lie fluid-like streams of cosmic rays and that interstellar dust grains hold the chemistry of life and Consciousness.  Furthermore, some researchers are looking into the possibility that ultra high energy cosmic rays could be experiencing quantum gravity effects.  In my mind, cosmic rays’ chemistry and their unseen but timely diffusion over the quantum field,  weave the web of a complex and multi-layered Universe coded by a mathematical riddle. In my mind, the evolution of matter and life and, to an unknown extent, Consciousness have sprung out of the cosmic microwave background since the early Universe. 

 

Franco Vazza went on saying that the mathematical representation of the Universe is similar to the latest estimates of the maximum memory capacity of the human brain as if the Universe was expanding at the same pace as our consciousness. Such a connection makes me wonder whether there can not be a Universe in which we live without consciousness. The statistical complexity of the Universe is also of the same order of the total amount of data generated every day by social media. I imagine the World Wide Web to be an expression of our collective consciousness evolving, communicating, in a sense living outside of our heads. Ultimately, I am unsure how I feel about weighing those three different things against each other. Setting them side by side makes my head spin. My feet off the ground, I have lost balance. Maybe it is not the Universe which is an infinite series of self-organized structures bounded by critical states, but Consciousness that is structuring itself into multiple states: a brain, social media, the Universe. And if consciousness is dependent on the amount of information that circulates within a system, how conscious is our planet? How conscious is our Universe?

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Night Sky

Published on by Catherine Toulsaly

Venus and the Moon (December 28)

Venus and the Moon (December 28)

A slumber did my spirit seal;
I had no human fears:
She seemed a thing that could not feel
The touch of earthly years.

No motion has she now, no force;
She neither hears nor sees;
Rolled round in earth's diurnal course,
With rocks, and stones, and trees.

William Wordsworth

 

Driving southeast from Cleveland on the first month of the year, the night curtains fall, revealing dazzling stars and planets caught in a net of constellations. The starlights beam bright, but I am not sure how I feel and whether they trigger in me some “distant memory” *. Venus, the third brightest celestial body, shines in the southwest sky. Beyond the heliosphere, eruptive, unstable stars signal their dramatic demise. Energy shocks flow in space when stars eject mass in a bubble of whimsical clouds as if they were “pulsating”. Mass loss may produce planetary nebulae such as NGC 5307 in the Centaurus constellation and  NGC 2022  in Orion. Those phenomena emit ultraviolet light that causes the expelled gases to glow. 

NGC 5307 (ESA/Hubble & NASA, R. Wade et al.; CC BY 4.0)

NGC 5307 (ESA/Hubble & NASA, R. Wade et al.; CC BY 4.0)

NGC 2022 (ESA/Hubble & NASA, R. Wade et al.; CC BY 4.0)

NGC 2022 (ESA/Hubble & NASA, R. Wade et al.; CC BY 4.0)

 

My night sky is not the skies over Aotearoa, that the Maori people would have contemplated. According to the star map drawn by Garry Beckstrom for 43 degrees north latitude, as I was leaving Cleveland and crossing back the Chesapeake Bay watershed, the brightest stars, visible with a naked eye, were Procyon, Sirius, Rigel, and Capella. Stars are classified based on their magnitude and luminosity.  However, for an observer looking at the night sky, their apparent brightness is also relative to how close they are to the solar system like Sirius born in the outer segment of the Sagittarius-Carina arm in our Milky Way at 8.6 light-years away and Procyon at 11.4.  I see space stretching in a line up of globular or galactic clusters, a grid of star formations extending one after the other as the discovery of Gaia 1 cluster concealed from sight by the brightness of Sirius has shown. 

Night Sky
Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

 

There are stars we can’t see, masked by the ones closer and brighter. Stars may outshine their companions, too. More than half of all stars are born and live out their long lives with other siblings making up so-called binary and multiple star systems. A hidden white dwarf was found hanging around with Sirius, and, in the constellation Canis Minor, a faint white dwarf was discovered keeping company to Procyon. Rigel, a massive blue supergiant in the Orion constellation,  is composed of at least four stars and Capella, of two binary pairs. Betelgeuse has no “invisible companion”** and forms the winter Triangle with Procyon and Sirius. However, a study published four years ago raised the possibility of a past coalescence with a companion star, making it harder for us to predict Betelgueuse’s evolutionary history and future. 

Betelgueuse (ESA/Herschel/PACS/L. Decin et al)

Betelgueuse (ESA/Herschel/PACS/L. Decin et al)

A few years back, a composite color image of Betelgeuse captured by the Herschel Space Telescope showed material ejected from Betelgeuse as it evolved into a red supergiant star, shaped by its bow shock interaction with the interstellar medium. In my mind, I picture Betelgeuse to be currently blocked by some obscuring material on the edge of an interstellar cloud.  Stars hide in a cocoon of gas and dust.  In 1847, there was a large erratic outburst now known as “The Great Eruption”. Eta Carinae, the subject of over four centuries of observations, dramatically faded. It was later established that the system was a massive, long-period, highly eccentric binary in which periodic variations are driven by the collision of the stellar winds of the component stars. A study published last year proposed that the long-term brightening phase, due to the dissipation of a dusty clump in front of the central star, will be completed around 2032 ± 4 yr, when the star will be brighter than in the 1600’s

 

 NGC 1175 (NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and William Keel (University of Alabama) and the Galaxy Zoo team)

NGC 1175 (NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and William Keel (University of Alabama) and the Galaxy Zoo team)

 

At nightfall, the ground slowly disappears. Under the starry dome, I paint with a Baudelairian brush the Universe. What looks to me like dust and smoke moving and spreading in various forms and shapes cloak galaxies like NGC 1175. Clumps of space dust formed the building blocks of terrestrial planets. A recent paper published in the Journal Nature reports of a population of dust-enshrouded objects orbiting the center of the Milky Way.

Star-forming molecular clouds are threaded by magnetic fields that are likely inherited from the galactic-scale interstellar medium out of which they condensed

Mark R. Krumholz and Christoph Federrath

One could read the history of galaxy mergers as a story of war and peace, filling space with ghosts and deceased stars. With my eyes closed, I could even sense a lingering feeling of bitterness at having been treated so unmercifully as hope vanishes in dark matter halos. 

… the one thing certain about bitterness is its blindness.

Martin Luther King, Jr, Where do we go from here?, p.26

 

 

Galaxies like egg-like structures are surrounded by a hot galactic corona beyond which another layer, a dark matter halo, is home of satellite galaxies. They are like islands in an archipelago  In the local group, the largest galaxy is Andromeda (M31) on collision course with the Milky Way. and the biggest satellite to orbit our own is the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a face-on galaxy with low metallicityOver the course of its history, the Milky Way has ingested multiple smaller satellite galaxies. Satellites may clash with each other or fall in the Milky Way’s territory, quenching, as a result, star formation within their own galactic realm. It was suggested that a merger between the Milky Way and a dwarf galaxy named Gaia-Enceladus occurred between 11.6 and 13.2 Gyr ago.

The Universe 11 billion years ago (NASA, ESA, M. Kornmesser)

The Universe 11 billion years ago (NASA, ESA, M. Kornmesser)

 

It seems to me that stellar physics attempts to explain stars from inside out and the transitioning process from one state to the next.  An abundance of surveys, imaging techniques as well as astrometry and interferometry are tools used to provide a better understanding. Night and day skies are worlds apart like a butterfly and a mole. The difference is the stars that we cannot see. And for the human eyes, the only ones that they see are within one galaxy, the Milky Way, like a glistening carriage carrying us through the Universe.  

 

Between the naked branches of slumbered trees, the Moon is high as I walked through the park one morning.  The cold swishing breeze moves through the dead leaves still hanging on trees. Steady steps on the sidewalks, I feel the warmth of the blinding sun and the quiescence of the moment. Time is my friend.  Early the next morning, the Moon has not risen yet, still hiding under a blanket of earthly feathers after a bitterly cold day yesterday. Blinded by the Sun, she will rise later and later until the end of January. Shrouded in the dust of ignorance, my mind somehow wanders back to cosmic rays and the phantom divide. 

Photograph of the Milky Way in the night sky over Black Rock Desert, Nevada by Steve Jurveston

Photograph of the Milky Way in the night sky over Black Rock Desert, Nevada by Steve Jurveston

 

*Cosmos, Carl Sagan

**The lost planets, John Wenz

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Messengers in the dark

Published on by Catherine Toulsaly

Enhanced Image by Gerald Eichstädt and Sean Doran (CC BY-NC-SA) based on images provided Courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS

Enhanced Image by Gerald Eichstädt and Sean Doran (CC BY-NC-SA) based on images provided Courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS

 

The color-enhanced image of Jupiter’s swirling clouds raises questions about the degrees of reality and to what extent processing techniques play a role in delivering the Universe as it is to us. Disentangling layers of reality relies on messengers to our brain, whether they be our five senses or, to a larger extent, the wide range of man-made remote sensing devices and observational techniques that act like filters created to allow the Universe to drip bit by bit into our realm of knowledge. Some signals to our brain may just be the sound of an alarm call made by a Carolina Wren or the view of a leaf flapping like a butterfly, pulled by Earth’s gravity. As the Madrella amphora and the Ecsenius springeri are leaving the realm of the unknown, adding pieces to the puzzle of life distribution on Earth, the information-driven Universe expands inch-by-inch, forward and backward in time.

The Frozen Canyons of Pluto’s North Pole (NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI)

The Frozen Canyons of Pluto’s North Pole (NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI)

From the Fermi paradox to the Drake equation, could cradles of biodiversity on Earth be a clue on finding life elsewhere in the Universe? Could signatures of life be found inside Pluto’s frozen canyons or on objects beyond our Solar system emitting aurora-like phenomena driven not externally but by internal processes?   I dream of life forms frozen in time hiding in space, maybe on Triton, the target of Trident, a mission concept currently proposed. Triton is the only captured dwarf planet that has become an icy satellite in the solar system, maybe with an active interior and a possible subsurface ocean

Messengers in the dark

 

The Drake equation from an outsider's point of view is an odd expression because nearly all of its factors are essentially undetermined due to the lack of observational tests. Sifting through data recorded with the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope during nine transits within a period of three years and supplemented by observations provided by Spitzer and Kepler Space Telescopes, the exoplanet K2-18 b was determined to be the first habitable-zone planet in the super-Earth mass regime with an observed atmosphere around it, suggesting a potentially temperate climate. Could it be harboring a life-supporting atmosphere? In the hunt for habitable exoplanets, two similar projects have been studied since the mid-1990: ESA’s Darwin concept and NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer. 

The universe just talks to us in so many ways, and every time you find a new way of listening, you find something else.

Ellen Zweibel

 

NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft embodies the essence of space exploration. Its full name was MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging. It studied Mercury’s internal magnetic field and confirmed that its polar deposits are dominantly water-ice. From ground telescopes to space observatories, we have extended our first line of exploration and sent probes into space to unveil the unknown. Those devices depend upon human minds, using data analysis algorithms, their input and expertise to interpret the information received, notwithstanding the fact that past interpretations may be reconsidered in the light of space newcomers. Last year, Pieter van Dokkum and his team relying on a small-size telescope, Dragonfly Telephoto Array, have put into question previous results regarding the stellar stream around NGC 5907.  

 

 The history of galaxy mergers brings its own metaphors and figurative expressions describing collisional debris such as stellar streams, gaseous structures named “plumes”, tidal tails, and stellar shells.It is suggested that the number of shells can indicate the time that has passed since the last merger and that streams have shorter timescales

Tidal tails result from major mergers events, stellar streams from minor mergers and shells from major and intermediate-mass mergers.

Brisa Mancillas, Pierre-Alain Duc, Françoise Combes, Frédéric Bournaud, Eric Emsellem, Marie Martig and Leo Michel-Dansac

 

The same way we study the Sun to learn more about how stars work, we study our own galaxy in the hope that it will give us the clues that we need to understand the Universe. An article published last month in the journal Nature reports that the bulk of the Milky Way’s stars formed at least 8 billion years ago. After a long period of quiescence, a starburst event followed about one billion-year ago that formed roughly 5% of its mass in what may have been one of the most energetic events in the history of the Milky Way. The study went on to say that star formation continued subsequently on a lower level, creating a few per cent of the stellar mass in the past ~500 Myr, with an increased rate up to ~30 Myr ago

 

 

From what we thought we knew to what we now think we know, we may be able, with the use of the upcoming space gravitational-wave detector LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna),  to confirm whether, indeed, a supermassive black hole binary exists in our galactic center as a result of galaxy mergers. As researchers propose their hypothesis, they wait for instruments and facilities to be built and put into operation. ERIS, the Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph, will be able, in the near future, to follow up on young clusters at the center of the Milky Way with high angular resolution imaging and spectroscopy. With Gaia, the star-mapping Observatory, an increased number of streams wound around the Milky Way was also detected. 


 

On the basis of the work done with the Max-Planck Millimeter Bolometer Array (MAMBO) and the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), the early Universe’s celestial objects such as MAMBO-9 may one day become the focus of the James Webb Space Telescope and NASA project named Origins Space Telescope that will provide direct insight into the dust opacity of star-forming galaxies. Origins is bound to trace our cosmic history. Following the opposite conclusions of two studies last year in regards to whether the Milky Way bar stars are more metal rich, Origins could be a suitable instrument to help our understanding of how metals and dust are made and dispersed throughout the cosmic web over the past 12 billion years


 

Eighty-five percent of all matter in the Universe is the so-called dark matter. Studies have suggested that it may have collapsed into small gravitationally bound systems known as halos, and then formed more massive halos through a history of mergers, with many small subhalos being much closer to the Earth than the bigger ones.  In order to maximize the sensitivity of dark matter searches, data was combined from different sources: the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS), the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes (MAGIC), and the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) as well as the Fermi-LAT satellite, and the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment (HAWC). A study has identified seven best dark matter subhalos candidates. One source may even coincide with Sagittarius stream, remnants of a Sagittarius dwarf galaxy that collapsed with the Milky Way between 300 and 900 Myr ago. Current Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) and the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) could be used to perform analyses of those candidates at high energies. On the evidence of a population of dark subhalos from Gaia and Pan-STARRS observations,  the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will add more precision in the definition of potential dark matter subhalos and help to explain density fluctuations observed in the galactic stream. 

When a dark subhalo gravitationally perturbs a stream, the long-term effect is that it pushes stars in the stream away from the point of closest approach and thus creates a characteristic gap in the density distribution of stream stars.

Nilanjan Banik, Jo Bovy, Gianfranco Bertone, Denis Erkal, and T.J.L. de Boer

Another study has called attention to an underdensity observed in the distribution of galaxy clusters, bounded in the Northern sky by the Sloan Great Wall, the richest nearby galaxy system, and in the south by the Shapley supercluster. While there is no universal star formation law, it is understood that interstellar magnetic fields play an important role in the structure and evolution of galaxies. The closest galaxies like Andromeda have been the focus of studies using a vast array of telescopes.  As I wrote in my last post about the observed reversals in the Sun’s magnetic field, reversals are detected in the halo of galaxy NGC 4631 using the G. Jansky Very Large Array radio Telescope. Along with APERTIF (APERture Tile In Focus) installed on the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), the above-mentioned radio telescope may be of help in the search of magnetic field reversals in the Andromeda Galaxy. 

 

Streams can be perturbed by smaller-scale objects, such as dark-matter subhalos, spiral arms, and molecular clouds. With PAWS, the PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey, a retrograde rotation was observed in galactic molecular clouds. The photometric catalog of DECam Legacy Survey may allow to confirm whether indeed the large gap in the globular cluster Palomar 5 originates from a dark-matter subhalo encounter, while the small gap may have been produced by a molecular cloud.

Multi-messenger astronomy involves the coordinated observation and interpretation of what appears to be inherently different signals, whether they be electromagnetic radiation, gravitational waves, neutrinos, and cosmic rays. However, they are pieces of the same puzzle that reveal different clues about a particular source of energy. Multi-messenger astronomy is about combining efforts in order to answer those fundamental questions that we all have been asking: How does the Universe work?, How did we get here, and Are we alone? In addition, the fact that there are multiple sources ensures the independent verification of results and observations and confirms the reliability of those different means and processing techniques. In the future, mission concepts like the All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO) and the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (ADEPT) meant to study signals in the medium-energy gamma-ray band, will be added to the well-established players like the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, the Fermi’s Large Area Telescope and the Virgo interferometer. 

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On the Nature of Solar Activity

Published on by Catherine Toulsaly

What one sentence of advice can encapsulate the embrace of breadth and the journey of experimentation that is necessary if you want...to arrive at a place optimized for you alone?

David Epstein, Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World, p.287

A new subject brings along an array of metaphorical expressions like coronal holes, helmet streamers, and coronal rain. When the hot plasma high in the Sun's corona undergoes rapid cooling, the coronal rain condenses and falls to the surface in post-flare loops. The helmet streamers are composed of yet smaller substreamers channeling continual density fluctuations at all visible scales. A typical coronal mass ejection (CME) is characterized by its shape, halo, and signature. 

CME consists of three components; an eruptive prominence associated with a bright core, a lower density dark cavity region, and a diffuse leading-edge CME front with its legs connected to the Sun.

Sudheer K. Mishra and A.K. Srivastava

 

Human nature is wired to recognize common patterns, but what role does intuition play? Intuition seems to be wrapped in a bundle of fear and reason. How can we tell the difference? Instead of ignoring sparks of intuition, hints inside our head, can our silent intuition with enough practice and training become louder? What I’m talking about here is the suggestive dialogue spur by our senses, arisen from sensorial perceiving, like the glimpse of a book on a desk, the last words written on a previous post or the sight of wavering leaves on a tree whose foliage is otherwise immobile, put in motion by busy birds on a branch, a dove nesting or a downy woodpecker pecking. It requires us noticing, with the understanding that the principle scientists and philosophers alike abide by is intuitive, the same one poets, for their part, are willing to embrace without a second thought.


 

Heights give us the deceptive impression that we are closer to the sky. In the eighties,  I used to ride my bike before dawn to see the Sun rising from the top of Charbon Hill in Beijing. Years later, in New Zealand, during that summer of 2013, I once felt uneasy by the closeness of the clouds while wandering in a late afternoon on the hill path at the Wellington Botanic Garden where no sun peeked through the heavy sky. My impression was not completely off after all since Austral Borealis can be seen from New Zealand. They are open trails to the Sun on the doorstep of the cosmic cave.  The common thread between those memories is the Sun, ruler of our calendar, with the Moon, the stars and the asterisms, and the subject of this inquiry.

A brilliant and vivid Aurora Borealis illuminates the Earth’s northern hemisphere on Jan 20, 2016, providing a spectacular view for members of Expedition 46 aboard the International Space Station

A brilliant and vivid Aurora Borealis illuminates the Earth’s northern hemisphere on Jan 20, 2016, providing a spectacular view for members of Expedition 46 aboard the International Space Station

In order to address questions related to the physical mechanisms and structure involved in the electromagnetic fields, plasma and energetic particles in the regions of the corona and wind, NASA’s Parker Solar Probe mission recently plunged through the inner heliosphere of the Sun to its perihelia, about 24 million kilometers from the Sun.The international journal Nature provides news and views on the findings of the Parker Solar Probe. Four academic papers were published this month on the matter. While the high wind streams may be coming from deep within coronal holes, evidence shows that low-latitude coronal holes are a key source of the slow solar wind. An increasing rotational component to the flow velocity of the solar wind around the Sun was found to peak at 35 to 50 kilometers per second.  The journal revealed how peculiar it is that the solar magnetic field exhibits patches of large, intermittent reversals. The latest results on a decades-long search for a dust-free zone surrounding the Sun were also highlighted.  

 

When there is an onset of solar activity, it reaches its apotheosis that may be one of the strongest geomagnetic storms on record since 1755, such as the events of August 2018. I don’t know what is more intriguing, whether it is to investigate where those solar flares are coming from and their subsequent impact on Earth or to study the long term patterns in solar cycles. We are currently in the 24th cycle since 2008 until the onset of the next one in around 2019-2021.  We are told that the Sun cycle is linked to the number of sunspots and that the Maunder minimum refers to a time in history around 1645 to 1715 when the number of sunspots was at a prolonged minimum. 

 

Sunspots are dark regions on the solar surface where the presence of strongly and densely twisted magnetic fields inhibits the plasma and energy flow into the regions, resulting in cooler and darker regions compared to the surrounding regions on the Sun’s photosphere.

Simon Wing, Jay R. Johnson, and Angelos Vourlidas

 

The number of sunspots climbs, at solar maximum, up to 200 in very active or strong solar cycles and drops down, at solar minimum, to 20 or less sunspots during periods of solar minimum. Some have speculated that we may be heading towards another Grand solar minimum if the decline in the photospheric fields continues beyond 2020

 

 

Indeed, researchers have been working on predictions for future solar cycles with cycle 25 to end around 2029-2031. Some claim that a gradual decrease in solar activity is underway since the 22nd solar cycle that began in 1986 and predicted that the next cycle will be even weaker. The current solar cycle 24 was preceded by one of the deepest solar minima experienced in the past 100 years causing cycle 24 to not only start about 1.3 years later than expected but also be the weakest since solar cycle 14 in the early 1900s

 

Can we follow the footprints of the solar winds all the way to the heliopause? And if indeed there is a decrease, what are the implications on faraway planets such as Uranus and Neptune? Much like the Earth, other planetary magnetospheres would have also undergone changes in their magnetopause shape as a result of the observed global changes occurring in the solar wind, notwithstanding the fact that planets are different from each other. Uranus has a negligible internal heat while Neptune internal energy enables the unraveling of powerful winds and rapidly-evolving storms as the observation of the new Great Dark Spot on Neptune has shown.

 

 I wish to know more about how long-term variation in cycle amplitude may affect the shape of the heliopause, the depth of penetration of interstellar hydrogen in the solar winds and the interactions with interstellar winds. I imagine the heliosphere like an invisible fortress and the heliopause its surrounding walls. Away from the charge exchange region behind the bow shock, I dream that solar winds in their retreat allow the penetration, into the perimeter of the solar system, of an interstellar object carried by interstellar winds and may facilitate the ejection of planetary debris into interstellar space.

 

 

The observed decrease in solar activity has naturally initiated studies on the response of the terrestrial magnetosphere. Its steady expansion has been observed since 1996. However, a forecast of the magnetopause (MP) shape in 2020, the expected minimum of cycle 24, showed a smaller MP stand-off distance. A drift of the Earth’s North Magnetic Pole may, on the other hand, be associated with a decline in its magnetic field.

 

In a ripple effect, a solar flare creates an outflow of particles traveling in the interplanetary space to the Earth’s poles. The Northern and Southern Lights are a manifestation of geomagnetic storms like the one that occurred on the 26th of August 2018. The Norwegian scientist Kristian Birkeland (1867–1917) laid the foundations of our current understanding of the nature of the aurora borealis

Frederic Edwin Church - Aurora Borealis - Google Art Project

And the Aurora Borealis was out. I’ve seen it only a few times in my life. It hung and moved with majesty in folds like an infinite traveler upstage in an infinite theater. In colors of rose and lavender and purple, it moved and pulsed against the night, and the frost-sharpened stars shone through it. What a thing to see at a time when I needed it so badly!

John Steinbeck, Travels with Charley in Search of America, p.48

Chasing a snow rainbow on the way back from Montreal through the pine trees of the Adirondack mountains and the frozen ponds, bounded to the east and west by mountain peaks covered in snow, a wave of disappointment washed over me for not reaching the Canadian Rockies to see the Northern Lights and catch the sunrise above the clouds as I recall words I read years ago that Wisdom is like the Sun and knowledge, the Moon… but ...the floating clouds of mistaken thoughts veil (human) nature... (Le Sutra de la plate-forme, p.46, 1992).

 

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Dreams of the Earth and Sky

Published on by Catherine Toulsaly

Dreams of the Earth and Sky

The evidence for a new Age of Wonder would be a shift backward in the culture of science, from organizations to individuals, from professionals to amateurs, from programs of research to works of art.

Freeman Dyson, Dreams of Earth and Sky, 2015, p.137

 

It has been a year. Twenty-four posts reflecting on the nature of the relationship between the Universe and Consciousness. The lessons I learned and what I remain convinced of is that Poetry and Philosophy are part of the new Age of Wonder, of a participative approach to the unveiling of the Universe. I plan for the next twelve months to post one or two articles every month, still resolute to strike the right balance between academic rigor and a sense of poetry.

 

On this one-year anniversary, I pause and dwell on the symbolism of Richard Powers’ book, The Overstory, hoping for a poetic intermission. What is a tree? I asked. Can it feel my touch? Can it communicate?  Let’s imagine a tree that dominates its surroundings, a witness of what unfolds through time, guardian of memories. And now let’s imagine a more imposing, invisible tree overlooking the Earth and humanity. This is how I feel about Richard Powers’novel. 

 

I started to read The Overstory and felt as if it were narrated by a tree that sees time differently from us as life events occur in a blink of an eye, “a couple of new fissures, an inch of added rings”. From kings in the forest, some have become lone lighthouses “in a grain-filled sea”, hopeless souls in the brutal landscape of cities. Is it our existential anguish that binds our souls to trees? 

 

 

Hope however is what is given to us by those lone lighthouses -- an inspiration to guide us into the future.  I seek to discover in the midst of nature the symbolism attached to every tree, stone, and animal. As we are standing upright on our two feet, so do trees, “vertical passages” between the Earth and Heaven. Solitary figures or multiple figures lost in the landscape. Filiform bodies, stripped of substance, erased memories in a city skyline. Trees, like threads, stretch and extend bridges between the telluric entrails of the Earth and the sky. In a life-and-death struggle with urbanization, deforestation, and pollution, trees are not crippled. In the long run, individual shadows have disappeared and yet reappeared miles away. In a surprising story of survival, seeds are constantly in motion. 

Dreams of the Earth and Sky

Under the lid of the cosmic prison evolves the Earth around the Sun, populated by billions of beings and their inner selves, cloaked in disguise, with their face masked even in solitude. Trees witness our demise, the way our mind, disconnected, is wrapped with emotions searching for those vertical threads that our physical hands can’t grasp. Trees witness our transmogrification at every stage of life evolution in the quest of order in the midst of chaos and a new representation of ourselves. 

 

I reflect upon what I wrote over the past nine years and remember that I saw a calcined trunk as I was wandering along the edge of Namadgi National Park outside Canberra in the summer of 2013, catching sight of kangaroos. In my mind full of preconceived images, its form reminded me of the figure of a Chinese scholar carrying the wisdom of the world on his back, frozen in time and mindful of the loss of life on the hunting grounds of humanity. 

 

Of course, trees would not stand the comparison with stars. But there is no need to look at the sky to contemplate the many facets of time, short and long manifestations of physical beings. Trees have their own sense of becoming. As time passes, trees whether they be banyans, oaks, or sequoias, will witness the replacement of billions of human beings, including me, by an even larger number within a hundred years. Trees attend every fall the flight of leaves blown in the wind like flocks of birds. However immovable they appear to be, trees, in the midst of overgrazed lands and urban neighborhoods, are intrinsic actors in our life and sometimes the only tangible link that we have with our distant past, when old grown forests were kingdoms on earth. Above the canopy of the Universe, what is the ontology of becoming? 

 

Interdisciplinary communication is epistemically perilous. Not only is there a risk of being misunderstood, but there is also the greater risk of not being aware of being misunderstood – and thus being unable to correct consequent mistakes.

Thomas Pradeu, A. Ferner

 

Consciousness is the overstory that stands above the canopy of the Universe. If she were reading my post, she would laugh at the idea that there is an above and a below, an up and down, a left and right in the Universe. Her laugh would frustrate me even more. Humans are a brief episode in a universal process. Consciousness, for her part, evolves delivered from the yoke of matter and time in her pursuit of the adjacent possible. As we only see the areas at the equator of the Sun where the magnetic field is rooted in dark spots as large as multiple earths, would she tell us the view over the solar poles? 

 

Trees with their rainbow-like canopy touching the sky, are living forms with an ever more considerable extension in time than we are.  Time is many things, I recall. An intangible concept shredded into intertwined layers. Some layers buried deep form an even more intangible past relegated to the archives of time. Our vanished memories have become undetected signals emitted by the cells of our brain. Time, I recall, sums up to multiple flows within one flow, loops of temporalities hanging from a single flow. 

Time was not a line unrolling in front of her. It was a column of concentric circles with herself at the core and the present floating outward along the outermost rim.

Richard Powers, The Overstory, p.55

 

There is the flow of things and the things that make up this flow. Bergson was right: we have learned to spatialize time. Under the lid of the cosmic prison, our linear time moves forward, sliced in an infinity of space-time. Each slice constitutes a whole universe.  Is time a fundamental property of reality or just the macroscopic appearance of things?  I read. It is a multitude of superposed layers collapsing into integrated information structures, entangled,  that allows Consciousness to emerge through the quantum universe which trees are made of. In a new Age of Wonder, I gather crumbs of random bits and recall that Randolph Kloetzli in his 1983 Buddhist cosmology refers to “those structures of space and time which transform chaos into a “world,” i.e., structures which support and sustain life" and adds that cosmos "must not be understood as the physical universe, but rather as structured reality at every level, whether physical or spiritual.” (p.19).  

Des Cieux Spirituels l'inaccessible azur,
Pour l'homme terrassé qui rêve encore et souffre,
S'ouvre et s'enfonce avec l'attirance du gouffre.

Charles Baudelaire, L'Aube spirituelle

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